What is Computer Architecture?

What is Computer Architecture

Introduction to What is Computer Architecture?

“Computer architecture” implies the underlying computer device structure. This includes instruction set, numeric sizes, and depictions in the case of a computer system, and how the machine communicates to portable drives (interruptions or polling).

While most architecture is functionally identical in the theoretical sense, it doesn’t mean that certain architectural choices make those applications and algorithms simpler to implement or more effective.

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Architecture without floating point support can be extended to perform the necessary functions in software, but typically it will be weaker than hardware implementation.

In the area of device interfaces, interrupts make the overlapping operation of the device with computing more effective. Such functions can be done without interruptions, but are much more complex.

Why Study Computer Architecture?

What now’s within and how it works will allow you to design, build and execute applications smarter, quicker, cheaper, more effective, and easier to use, so you’ll be able to make educated decisions rather than a guest mate and presume them.

  • Since you use it regularly,
  • Because you’ll probably need it for the rest of your life,
  • Since you are a student in CS, you study computer science.
  • Since computer architecture is probably the most basic topic in computer science. The world of computer science doesn’t exist without computers.

In this course, you will learn the current state of the art in desktop computers, such as the internal functioning of nano-scale microprocessors to large-scale data centre infrastructures, and how to program multi-core machines and also a network of virtual/physical machines that power data centres that in turn allow cloud computing.

A Brief History of Computers

Open a TV or a radio and you’ll see a coloured green screen-filling much of the room inside, it’s the Printed Circuit Board. It looks like a city map, with tiny electrical parts (such as resistors and capacitors) connecting them as miniature metal streets instead of the houses, and written copper links.

Such circuit boards are good in small devices like this but it is impractical for large computing devices like a device without the board is a few hundred square feet in size.

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Computer simplest requires about eight switching devices to store one byte(character) of data. So if you’re planning to create a simple computer with enough memory to store this post, which has around 450 characters, about 3600 electronic switches will need 450 x 8.

Considering the vaccine tubes used in the early 1940s, which were the size of a human thumb, you would end up creating a huge, power-hungry beast. In 1947, with the advent of transistors, which were a fraction of the size of the vaccine tubes and consumed less power, it’s become simpler to use transistors for computing, but the complicated circuits were still not easy to manage.

Computer simplest requires about eight switching devices to store one byte(character) of data. So if you’re planning to create a simple computer with enough memory to store this post, which has around 450 characters, about 3600 electronic switches will need 450 x 8.

Considering the vaccine tubes used in the early 1940s, which were the size of a human thumb, you would end up creating a huge, power-hungry beast.

In 1947, with the advent of transistors, which were a fraction of the size of the vaccine tubes and consumed less power, it’s become simpler to use transistors for computing, but the complicated circuits were still not easy to manage.

What are Digital Computers?

Best Styles Of Computer Architecture
Best Styles Of Computer Architecture

Digital computers are a digital device that performs different computational tasks. The word digital implies that computer information is represented by variables that take up a limited number of discrete values. Components that can hold a limited number of distinct states process these variables locally.

For example, ten discrete values are given by the decimal digits 0, 1, 2… 9. The first digital electronic computer, which appeared in the late 1940s, was mainly used for numerical computing, and the digits were the discrete elements. The word Digital Machine originated from this application.

I practice, if only two states are used, digital computers can work more efficiently. Due to the physical constraint of components, and since human logic appears to be binary (i.e. true or false, yes or no statements), digital components that are compelled to take separate values are therefore compelled to take only two values and are said to be binary.

Digital computers use the form of binary numbers with two digits: 0 and 1 It is called a bit of a binary digit. Information is expressed in groups of bits on digital computers.

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By using different coding techniques, bits can be set to represent not only binary numbers as well as other distinct symbols, such as decimal digits or letters of the alphabet.

Computer Architecture of Digital Computers

Computer Design is concerned with the machine’s configuration and behaviour as the user experiences it. It covers the memory addressing content, formats, instruction set, and strategies.

A computer system’s architectural design deals with the requirements of the different functional components, such as processors and memories, and integrates them all into a computer system.

Two main computer architecture styles are:

  • von Neumann architecture
  • Harvard architecture

· von Neumann architecture

Best Styles Of Computer Architecture
Best Styles Of Computer Architecture

The von Neumann architecture describes a general system, or structure, that really should be followed by computer hardware, programming, and data.

While other computing systems have been developed and applied, according to the von Neumann architecture, the great majority of computers in use today work.

John Louis von Neumann is a renowned mathematician who published the first draught of an EDVAC Paper. EDVAC refers to an automatic computer with an electronic discrete variable which is one of the original electronic computers.

This paper laid the groundwork for computer architecture. He made important contributions to the use of memory for storing data in digital computers.

Von Neumann is the founder of the merge sort algorithm in which the half of an array is sorted and fused. He also wrote the novel, The Brain and the Machine. This book deals with the brain being regarded as a computing machine.

Von Neumann Architectural Elements

The Architecture at Von Neumann has the following components:
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • Shop for Instant Access (IAS)
  • I / O ( Input / Output)
  • Core Processing Unit

The CPU is in charge of the computer and manages the data. It has four principal parts as follows:

The Logic Arithmetic Unit (ALU)

This section performs all the operations of arithmetics and logic such as measurements and comparisons.

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Controller

This part handles moving instructions one at a time to and from the memory and executing instructions.

Records
  • Depending on the information being processed, various forms of registries exist.
  • Software Counter-shop next instruction position
  • Present Register of Instructions-Store existing instructions
  • Accumulators-shop measurement and analysis performance
  • Status Register-Store the last process data
  • Interrupt file – stores details about a break that occurred Clock
  • Instructions are executed to clock rhythm. The faster the clock, the quicker the CPU is.
  • Immediate Access Store
  • This is commonly referred to as the Main Memory or Random Access Memory ( RAM). It stores instructions, as well as data. Von Neumann observed that the nature of instruction and the source of the information does not vary.
  • Buses that allow instructions to be transferred between various parts of the computer are called a data bus. Buses that detect memory locations are referred to as an address bus.
  • Input / Output
  • I / O refers to the Data input and output devices. A machine has to read in the data and send data through I / O ports. An I / O controller is an interface that enables a user to connect to the computer any I / O device and transmit data into or out of the computer.
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Von Neumann Architectural Advantages

Here are some of the Von Neumann architectural advantages:

  • Control Unit retrieves data and instructions from one memory in the very same way. The Control Unit design and implementation is simpler, more cost-effective, and quicker.
  • Similarly, data from input/output devices and memory is collected.
  • Memory organization is done by a programmer which enables them to use the entire capacity of the memory.
Von Neumann Architecture: Drawbacks

The Von Neumann architecture has some drawbacks here:

  • Due to sequential instruction processing concurrent program implementation is not permitted.
  • Von Neumann bottleneck – Instructions can be performed sequentially and only one at a time.
  • The danger of a rewrite of the recommendation accuracy to a software error.

Harvard architecture

Best Styles Of Computer Architecture
Best Styles Of Computer Architecture
  • The Harvard architecture uses its data and instructions for physically separate storage and signal pathways. The word originated in the Harvard Mark I and the relay latches data (23- digit wide).
  • In a Harvard architecture machine, the CPU can concurrently read both a memory instruction and data, resulting in a doubling of the memory bandwidth.
  • Suggestions for Harvard architecture are microcontroller-based computers and computer systems powered on DSP (Digital Signal Processor).

Conclusion

The primary issue of this course is to provide a broad analysis of computer architecture with special emphasis on designing reduced instruction set computers, enable the organization to understand the basic principles and tradeoffs and behind the development of new computer networks, such as cost/performance or speed/versatility.

This course provides a framework for bridging the distance between the computer’s programming and its inner difficulties.

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